Soybean diseases taking off in Iowa
Several soybean diseases have popped up over the past several weeks across Iowa. Although some diseases are quite severe in certain fields, others are only scattered problems in parts of the state. Regardless, it is important to scout and identify what diseases are present and to keep track of where the diseased spots are occurring in the field. This can help with variety selection and possible management of these diseases in the future. Some of the more common diseases found in our field scouting over the past few weeks include:
click image to zoomFigure 1. Yellow patches of sudden death syndrome in a soybean field. Leaves of infected plants can fall off but petioles will stay attached to the plant. Sudden death syndrome (SDS)
Severity of SDS has increased in many parts of the state. While it is still mostly pockets within a field, it is the cause of many of the yellow spots observed in soybean fields (Figure 1). Remember to check your soybean cyst nematode (SCN) counts this fall in fields with SDS to see if SCN is contributing to the SDS problem. In July 2014, we discussed the increased risk of SDS in 2014 in this article.
Brown stem rot (BSR). This disease is still mostly only in northern Iowa but has also been reported in parts of eastern Iowa. Remember to split stems to distinguish between SDS and BSR. This article from earlier in the season explains more about how to tell SDS from BSR, as well as discusses BSR management issues.
While the cause of top dieback is unknown, many yellow spots in fields are the result this disease. Top dieback appears as yellowing on the outside margins of leaves in the upper canopy (much like potassium deficiency, but in the upper canopy). The cause of this disease is still up for debate, but potassium deficiency, SCN, and the Phomopsis/Diaporthe disease complex (fungi associated with stem canker and pod and stem blight) may be culprits. Several years ago, a very thorough article was written about top dieback.
click image to zoomFigure 2. Fluffy white growth on the leaf underside is a sign of downy mildew infection. Downy mildew
This foliar disease is becoming more common as the season goes on. Downy mildew can be identified by the light green, irregular shaped lesions on the top side of the leaf and fluffy white growth on the under side of the leaf (Figure 2).
Frogeye leaf spot
Another foliar disease that is showing up in parts of Iowa, especially in the southern counties, is frogeye leaf spot. Frogeye is fairly easy to identify by the gray lesions with purple borders.
click image to zoomCraig GrauFigure 3. Stem canker can be identified by examining stems for sunken, gray-brown lesions with reddish margins. Note green tissue below lesions. Stem canker
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