Yield loss on the edge of fields in 2013
University of Illinois researchers have been receiving reports since corn harvest began this fall about an unusual phenomenon: yields of the outside 8 to 24 rows on the south or west edges of corn fields show lower or much lower yields than corn farther into the field. The damage tends to be relatively uniform down or across the field, and is on field edges that border a soybean field, road, ditch, or another short-growing crop (such as forage legumes or grasses) other than corn.
Ears in affected rows are shortened, pinched (missing some rounds of kernels), or they have scattered kernels. We don’t have a good idea of how many fields or acres were affected, but have had reports of this over a fairly wide area in Illinois.
Relatively uniform damage across the end or side of fields downwind of prevailing winds, next to adjoining fields of a different crop or anything else that was shorter in height than the damaged crop, is typically an easy call: this pattern points to something sprayed on adjoining or nearby fields, under windy conditions or conditions that led to drift, of something to which the affected crop was very sensitive.
The taller crop – in this case corn – slows air movement and allows the material to settle out, with damage diminishing as one moves into the field.
Corn ear development is initiated at about stage V6, and the uppermost ear starts to develop quickly after stage V10 or so, reaching its peak at about V12-V13, when plants are 5 to 6 feet tall. A number of chemicals can cause ear shortening or disruption of kernel initials, and that that reach the ear during this stage can do damage.
Scattered kernels can also result from problems at pollination, but when pollination conditions are as good as they were in 2013, it’s much more likely that this came from something that reached the ear before tassels emerged. Most of the corn was planted in mid-May this past season, and reached damage-sensitive stages in late June or early July. It’s likely that most of the damage took place during that period. By the time the crop pollinated, it would have been too late to get cob and ear shortening.
Some have suggested that the outside rows of corn were damaged when they took the brunt of dry, windy conditions before or during pollination. There are several reasons why this does not explain very well what we saw in 2013. One is that the outside rows in a corn field have access to water and light from outside the field, and tend to yield more, not less, than interior rows under stress conditions.