AMES, Iowa - Animal agriculture long has been an economic driver for Iowa's small towns and rural communities. A new report developed at Iowa State University shows there is excellent potential for growth of the state's animal food systems, which would result in more jobs and higher cash receipts.
"Development through animal agriculture is a logical and exciting avenue to grow Iowa's rural economies," said Wendy Wintersteen, dean of Iowa State's College of Agriculture. "Our animal agriculture industry is favorably located geographically, in an area of competitive advantage for feed ingredients and has cropping systems that are compatible for manure utilization."
Iowa State's Department of Animal Science conducted a year-long visioning exercise to evaluate the current status of animal agriculture and opportunities for growth. About 40 industry representatives were involved, with reports written for six livestock categories -- beef, dairy, equine, pork, poultry and sheep/goats.
Maynard Hogberg, department chair and professor of animal science, said the report shows Iowa has the land resources to increase livestock and poultry production.
"Think about a diversified crop-livestock farm that feeds all the crops grown on the farm and sells only livestock or poultry products," Hogberg said. "More labor is needed to care for the animals and value is added to the crops that are converted to higher value animal proteins. The farm would purchase less commercial fertilizer because the manure nutrients would meet most of the crop needs."
Iowa State's Center for Agricultural and Rural Development evaluated the number of hog or cattle finishing spaces needed to fertilize crops per section of cropland. Using sound agronomic practices and environmental regulations, researchers determined if Iowa's 36,000 sections of cropland were planted in a corn-corn-soybean rotation under a phosphorus standard, it would take all the hogs and 80 percent of the fed cattle in the United States to generate adequate nutrients for the crops.
Iowa currently has about 26 percent of the nation's hogs and 6 percent of fed cattle inventories. "Clearly, Iowa has the land resources to expand animal agriculture," Hogberg said. "Issues of concentration and environmental impacts exist, and but those will continue to be addressed."
John Lawrence, professor of economics and director of the Iowa Beef Center, studied the growth potential for the animal species in the report. "Cash receipts from animal agriculture in 2005 were nearly $7.9 billion in Iowa and represented 53 percent of all agriculture receipts," he said. "The targeted growth outlined in this report would lead to an increase of $2 billion in cash receipts from animal agriculture over the next decade."
The report suggests fed cattle marketings have the potential to increase 50 percent by 2016, with a 10 percent growth in beef cowherds. A 50 percent increase in milk production through increased productivity and cow numbers is projected.
The report also suggests a 15 percent increase in Iowa's swine breeding herd and a 10 percent increase in finishing pigs, a 37 percent increase in laying hens, a 40 percent increase in turkeys, a 20 percent increase in horses, a 160 percent increase in goats and the addition of 50,000 ewes to the state's sheep flocks.
Lawrence said the effect on jobs and economic activity if Iowa were to increase its animal agriculture industry to these levels is impressive.
"The growth of Iowa's animal agriculture offers traditional partners an increased demand for Iowa grains, supplies, capital, energy, labor and consumables. It also has the potential to add jobs in other areas," he said. "Nearly 10,000 new jobs, both direct and indirect, would be created if the growth projections outlined in this report are reached. Plus, cash receipts would be $9.705 billion and total economic activity would be $21.2 billion."
As the individual species reports were developed, central themes surfaced. The final report - "A Vision for Iowa Animal Agriculture" - includes nine key messages that cut across all animal species.
One of those is that Iowa's biobased industry offers advantages to animal agriculture.
"It's essential for the role of livestock in Iowa's emerging bioeconomy to be defined," Hogberg said. "Additional research is needed to find ways to use the by-products more effectively in the diets of animals and to find alternative energy sources or feedstuffs for swine and poultry.
Other key messages are:
The report is available online or by calling 1-515-294-2160.
SOURCE: Iowa State University news release.