Eric Davidson, senior scientist at the Woods Hole Research Center, explains that the “Improving Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Crop & Livestock Production Systems: Existing Technical, Economic & Social Impediments and Future Opportunities” conference recently held in Kansas City was an outgrowth of a National Science Foundation grant for networking and outreach for solutions to wise fertilizer use and doubling the world’s food output. Several private sponsors were also involved, he noted. In this wrap-up, he explains the purpose of the conference.